A full abdominoplasty or "tummy tuck" may be chosen by men who have hanging abdominal skin (usually the result of massive weight loss), loose abdominal muscles, and/or neglected hernias. It is a major surgical procedure that removes excess fat, tightens the muscles of the abdominal wall, and trims the waistline. Men who have a full abdominoplasty are often surprised at the long recovery period. Some patients aren't able to return to work up to 4 weeks after surgery. Men with good skin elasticity who have only a moderate amount of excess abdominal fat may benefit from liposuction alone. Muscle-enhancing surgery: In recent years, plastic surgeons have developed ways of improving muscle contour with cosmetic implants and "sculpting" techniques. Calf implants, which were originally developed to restore leg contour in accident or polio victims, are now sometimes used to create cosmetic fullness in the lower leg. Similarly, pectoral implants, which are used to build the chests of men with Poland's syndrome, can also be used to "bulk out" the existing pectoral muscles of healthy men.
A small number of doctors have begun offering their male patients abdominal etching, a new liposuction technique that creates a muscular, rippled appearance in the abdominal area. Men who consider cosmetic muscle enhancement should keep in mind that these procedures are still relatively new. It is best to seek out a board-certified plastic surgeon who has received adequate training in these methods.